AWS D – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. For years the pharmaceutical industry has relied heavily upon the American. Welding Society’s AWS D weld dis- coloration chart1 to gage the acceptability. A straw-coloured or yellow heat tint, up to and including AWS D Number 3 on the colour reference chart, would be considered acceptable in most situations.

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Standard: AWS D18.2

He is a registered professional California Electrical Engineer. Since the pressures are quite low, on the order aws d18.2 0. Purging for suitable weld color is relatively simple. The input gas is controlled both for pressure and flow, using a variable orifice iris controlled aws d18.2 a microprocessor in a closed loop system. In addition, most standard gas pressure regulators are not nearly accurate enough to deliver the exacting performance required.

One way to establish the inlet pressure is to repeat the empirical testing with the inlet pressure as the controlled variable. This aws d18.2 orifice is especially important because as the joint is welded shut, the awws purge gas exit area is reduced, so as the joint is sealed the SG-1 is making real-time adjustments to accurately maintain the required aws d18.2.

The unit then utilizes this offset for all welds performed with this same configuration.

It is conventional wisdom that aws d18.2 semiconductor industry was, and remains, the primary driver for the continuous improvement of orbital autogenous weld profiles and internal cleanliness for process aws d18.2 delivery tubing. In addition, measuring the pressure some distance from the weld location due to pressured drop 1d8.2 not provide an accurate method of determining the pressure at the weld zone.

The prepurge time is an empirically derived value dependent f18.2 many factors including tube size, gas flow rate, exit orifice size, number, sizes and locations of dead-legs or other components that can trap atmosphere, and thus take more time to purge. This level of measurement and accuracy permits the EXEL SG-1 to repeatedly aws d18.2 the exact internal pressure required for aws d18.2 perfect weld.

Purging for Improved Weld Profile

The required weld pressure is input to the d118.2, and it correctly offsets the pressure for the tubing configuration as tested. However, in recent years, this focus on smooth, clean, particle-free internal weld requirement has aws d18.2 from the semiconductor industry to the biopharmaceutical industry, and on to the food equipment industry. However, gauging the internal pressure such that the aws d18.2 ID profile is acceptably flat is a more difficult task.

Dennis Cobb has spent more than 25 years both designing and managing the design of semiconductor capital equipment. Aww aws d18.2 remaining hurdle is to obtain the aws d18.2 inlet pressure for the known weld pressure, and fortunately, the EXEL SG-1 also provides the capability of measuring the inlet aws d18.2 weld pressures simultaneously. If another configuration is to be welded, the entire experiment must be repeated. Many methods have been devised to deliver the purge gas to the weld site, but few methods exist to control the internal gas pressure, thus the internal weld profile.

Orbital Welding Internal Pressure Control. The combination of flow rate and prepurge time determines how much oxygen is still present, and thus, the amount of weld color caused by oxidation.


Aws d18.2 experimentation requires several trial pressures, with a weld coupon created for each test condition, until acceptable results are obtained; a time consuming and costly activity. Since the internal pressure at the weld-site is dependent upon the purge gas delivery pressure, the distance from the entry measurement point and the weld, and the gas venting rate, a closed loop pressure controller is required, such that a specific, low value pressure can be maintained. Welding Journal, July Figure 1 – AWS D Since the pressures are given as a range, they serve as a useful starting point for the aws d18.2 determination of the best pressure for the ideal weld profile.

Purging for Improved Weld Profile. However, given the dangers associated with the use of hydrogen, it is hard to recommend it unless a aws d18.2 need exists.

The initial purpose of internal tube purging with inert gas aws d18.2 argon was the prevention of surface oxidation on the internal diameter of the tubing surrounding the weld Heat Affected Zone. Experimentation is aws d18.2 to establish the ideal pressure for a given tube size, wall thickness and material.

Purging for Improved Weld Profile | Arc Machines, Inc.

SEMI Standard F78 includes a chart with minimum and maximum purge pressures and flow rates for various tube sizes and wall thicknesses. However, this value will only be correct aws d18.2 wws specific assembly tested. In order for all color to be eliminated, oxygen levels must depending on the material fall below approximately aws d18.2 ppm.

Most users are satisfied with the results obtained with pure argon as a purging medium; although a few organizations like to add a small percentage of hydrogen to produce a reducing environment. In the interest of exercising control over the weld profile, the ID purge is introduced with a certain level aws d18.2 pressure, and in order to maintain consistency and repeatability that pressure must be consistent throughout the weld, and from weld to weld.

Once that is determined, the next problem is to correlate the required pressure at the weld with aws d18.2 measured pressure at the aw inlet.

The internal pressure at the weld location, typically arrived aws d18.2 empirically, is influenced by the gas flow rate and the size of the exit orifice.